В этом разделе вы можете найти различные книги: художественную литературу и беллетристику на иностранных языках, пособия и методички, учебную и справочную литературу по изучающему языку. К вашему вниманию художественная литература на немецком и английском языке. Словари и энциклопедии. А понравившиеся издания вы можете заказать с доставкой.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! In biochemistry and molecular biology, a residue refers to a specific monomer within the polymeric chain of a polysaccharide, protein or nucleic acid. For example, one might say, "The histidine residue is considered to be basic due to its imidazole ring." Note that a residue is different from a moiety, which, in the above example would be constituted by the imidazole ring or "the imidazole moiety". Note the origin of this usage: during the process by which monomeric building blocks (e.g. amino acids) are strung together into a polymeric chain (e.g. a protein), some material (typically adding up to one molecule of water) is discarded from each building block, and only a "residue" of the building block ends up in the finished product. For example, a residue is an individual amino acid in a peptide chain.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. Forty percent of mammal species are rodents, and they are found in vast numbers on all continents other than Antarctica. Common rodents include mice, rats, squirrels, chipmunks, gophers, porcupines, beavers, hamsters, gerbils, guinea pigs, degus, chinchillas, prairie dogs, and groundhogs. Rodents have sharp incisors that they use to gnaw wood, break into food, and bite predators. Most eat seeds or plants, though some have more varied diets. Some species have historically been pests, eating seeds stored by people and spreading disease.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! In nutrition, proteins are broken down in the stomach during digestion by enzymes known as proteases into smaller polypeptides to provide amino acids for the organism, including the essential amino acids that the organism cannot biosynthesize itself. Aside from their role in protein synthesis, amino acids are also important nutritional sources of nitrogen. Proteins contain 16.8 kilojoules (4 kilocalories) per gram as opposed to lipids which contain 37.8 kilojoules (9 kilocalories) and alcohols which contain 29.4 kilojoules (7 kilocalories). These numbers are averages, as each protein is slightly different (range roughly 3.5-4.5). The liver, and to a much lesser extent the kidneys, can convert amino acids used by cells in protein biosynthesis into glucose by a process known as gluconeogenesis. The amino acids leucine and lysine are exceptions.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! In Australia, rabbits are the most serious mammalian pests, an invasive species whose destruction of habitats is responsible for the extinction or major decline of many native animals such as the Western Quoll. Annually, European rabbits cause millions of dollars of damage to crops. Since their introduction from Europe in the 18th century, the effect of rabbits on the ecology of Australia has been devastating. Rabbits are suspected of being the most significant known factor in species loss in Australia. The loss of plant species is unknown at this time. Rabbits often kill young trees in orchards, forests and on properties by ringbarking them.
Bio-Architecture studies the natural principles of animal and human constructions from several different perspectives, and presents a great part of the knowledge that gives origin and shape to built form. Organic architecture offers a design approach arising from natural principles, bringing us back to local history, tradition, and cultural roots to give us built forms which are in harmony with nature. It also shows how architects can take advantage of the resources that contemporary technology has placed within our grasp.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! A proton pump is an integral membrane protein that is capable of moving protons across the membrane of a cell, mitochondrion, or other subcellular compartment. An Integral Membrane Protein (IMP) is a protein molecule (or assembly of proteins) that is permanently attached to the biological membrane. Such proteins can be separated from the biological membranes only using detergents, nonpolar solvents, or sometimes denaturing agents.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Quorum sensing is a type of decision-making process used by decentralized groups to coordinate behavior. Many species of bacteria use quorum sensing to coordinate their gene expression according to the local density of their population. Similarly, some social insects use quorum sensing to make collective decisions about where to nest. In addition to its function in biological systems, quorum sensing has several useful applications for computing and robotics. Quorum sensing can function as a decision-making process in any decentralized system, as long as individual components have (a) a means of assessing the number of other components they interact with and (b) a standard response once a threshold number of components is detected.
This substantial volume showcases 35 of the presentations delivered at the 5th International Brachiopod Congress in Copenhagen. The brachiopod congresses are a focus for cutting–edge research in brachiopod palaeontology and neontology. The presentations from the Copenhagen Congress cover a wide range of material from basic morphology and taxonomy through advances in molecular phylogeny and ultrastructural studies to the biogeography and palaeoecology of the phylum. About 75% of the papers relate to fossil brachiopods and the rest to living forms The following fields are represented in the volume: Taxonomy/Morphology (25%), Ecology/Palaeoecology (35%) and Stratigraphy/Biogeography (20%), phylogeny (10%) and Biochemistry/Genetics (10%). The volume is beautifully illustrated throughout and the papers together represent an exciting snapshot of contemporary brachiopod research as it continues into the third millennium.
It is hard to imagine, by their very name, the life sciences not involving the study of living things, but until the twentieth century much of what was known in the field was based primarily on specimens that had long before taken their last breaths. Only in the last century has ethology--the study of animal behavior--emerged as a major field of the life sciences. In Patterns of Behavior, Richard W. Burkhardt Jr. traces the scientific theories, practices, subjects, and settings integral to the construction of a discipline pivotal to our understanding of the diversity of life. Central to this tale are Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen, 1973 Nobel laureates whose research helped legitimize the field of ethology and bring international attention to the culture of behavioral research. Demonstrating how matters of practice, politics, and place all shaped "ethology's ecologies," Burkhardt's book offers a sensitive reading of the complex interplay of the field's celebrated pioneers and...
This book explores existing and potential strategies for using the genome sequences of human, mouse, other vertebrates and human pathogens to solve key problems in the treatment of immunological diseases and chronic infections. The assembled genome sequences now provide important opportunities for solving these problems, but a major bottleneck is the identification of key sequences and circuits controlling the relevant immune reactions. This will require innovative, interdisciplinary and collaborative strategies of a scale and complexity we are only now beginning to comprehend. Specific problems addressed include the following: What kinds of information are we lacking to understand how the genome sequence specifies the differentiation and response of immune system cells, and system behaviour such as immunological memory and tolerance? Which genome sequences and cellular circuits cause or prevent pathological immune responses to foreign...
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