METONYMY – TYPE OF SEMANTIC SHIFT (Q.V.), FIGURE OF SPEECH THE ESSENCE OF WHICH IS THE SUBSTITUTION OF THE NAME OF AN ATTRIBUTE OR ADJUNCT FOR THAT OF THE THING MEANT (E.G. CROWN FOR KING, THE TURF FOR HORSE RACING).
Cognitive/conceptual metonymy – analysis of metonymical expressions in terms of cognitive semantics, resorting to the notion of conceptual domain (q.v.). C.m. names one aspect or element in a conceptual domain while referring to some other element which is in contiguity relation with it. Basic instances of conceptual metonymy: person for his name (I'm not in the telephone book), possessor for possessed (My tyre is flat), container for contained (This is an excellent dish), producer for produced (My new Macintosh is superb), etc.
Metonymy is the tendency of certain words to occur in near proximity & mutually influence one another.
Ex.: He drinks 2 cups (tea, coffee) every morning.
He has eaten 2 plates (porridge) today.
Metaphor accounts for a very considerable proportions of semantic changes.
Language is full of so-called fossilized (trite-банальный, избитый, неоригинальный) metaphors, which no longer call up the image of an object from which they were borrowed.
Ex.: the leaf of a book;
hands of a clock;
a clock face;
hands of a cabbage.
Прислала Алена Жильцова