THE STRUCTURE OF LEXICAL MEANING
According professor Nikitin
Semiotic meaning is arbitrary and conventional, especially established for the sake of communication. No link between the sign and the referent existing in reality
Ex.: winter (December - February); dog
Implicational meaning is based on natural linkage of objects in reality.
Winter – cold, snow, frost (implicational meaning) – associations connected with a name.
Implicational meaning is culture bound, territory bound
4 types of implicational meaning
1) Rigid implication (жесткий имплекционал)
highly probable features of winter (for Russia – холод, мороз)
2) Strong implication
probable features of winter – реки замерзают
3) Weak implication
these are unlikely features of winter – rain, warm weather
4) Negative implication
features that can never be applied to this referent
green grass, hot weather – not winter
in stylistic it is called oxymoron
Cognitive meaning represents the information about the world (the referent)
Pragmatic component presents our subjunctive attitude towards the world and its elements (depends on our life experience)
Both of them or only one of them is represented in the structure of lexical meaning.
1) Most words are pragmatically neutral (only cognitive component in the structure of their meaning)
chair, desk, pen – they are free from expressing subjunctive attitude to the referent.
2) “fascist” – cognitive and pragmatic components
3) sometimes cognitive components are switched off & pragmatic component plays the leading role
The difference between extension & contention lies in the difference between the contents & the volume of the notion.
Contentional meaning reflects the structure of essential features of the notion.
Extension: a number of denotater to which its name refers: godmother, biological mother, mother-in-law.
Both components are variable.
1) They have got a parrot. This parrot has been with them for a long time. This parrot is a funny creature.
2) How long can a parrot live?
In this two examples the word PARROT changes its extensional.
1 – a representative of a class (denotative – конкретный)
2 – a name of a class (significative – усредненный)
the contentional is also different:
2) A bird living in some tropical countries, exotic bird, is able to speak
1) 2 + a concrete bird living with them
(more features of contentional meaning)
Not all the words have extensional meaning.
Names of properties (признаковые слова)
Verbs, adjectives, adverbs – don’t have the extensional meaning, because they are non-referential.
(они не могут выступать в репрезантивной функции они могут только описывать то, что уже описано другим именем(существительным)
A name has a denotative meaning if it represents a representative of a class.
When it represents the class in general it has significative meaning.
1. This is the house that Jack built.
2. A good laugh is sunshine in the house
general idea of the house
1 – denotative
2 – significative meaning
All common nouns can represent both a representative of a class & some class in general.
They can have either denotative or significative meanings.
Proper names can represent only a representative of a class. They can’t represent a the class in general. They have no intentional. They have only denotative meaning.
Some linguists use the term “connotational meaning” instead of the term “pragmatic meaning”
semiotic – (sign) – dog
cognitive – an animal kept as a pet
used for hunting and guarding
pragmatic – devoted, friend – positive
wicked, bites, evil – negative
intentional – animal +
used for hunting and guarding +
extensional – different kinds of dogs (breeds)
significative – a dog is a man’s friend
How long can a dog live?
Denotative – I have a dog. This dog lives with me for a long time.
Implicational – 1. rigid implication: 4 paws, a tail, barks
2. strong implication: runs fast. Bites
3. weak implication: can swim
Прислала Алена Жильцова