Term – a word or a word combination of a special (scientific, technical, etc.) language, which is created, borrowed, or adopted to exactly express the definite concepts specific for that science and name its special objects. A term is a definitional word, i.e. it is not only directly connected with a scientific definition but displays a relationship of one-to-one correspondence with it.
Archaism – words which were once common but are now replaced by synonyms (e.g. save 'except', hapless 'unlucky', betwixt 'between', etc.). The predilection of a. in vocabulary and syntax is the main feature of the extreme varieties of written English – the language of law, the language of religion and poetic diction. In this respect, religious, legal and poetic English are the only varieties, which allow a. to such an extent. Unlike the case with historisms (q.v.) the thing or notion denoted does not go into disuse.
Different points of view:
- if we fell that the word is a neologisms – it is a neologisms.
- 25 years
Classification of neologisms:
1. A word in which the form & the meaning is new.
2. The form is new, but the meaning has already existed in some other word
3. The meaning is new but the form existed
- Ex.: bread – money
- Greens – dollars
1. These are words, which can occur in isolation, but they can be parts of new words.
2. New morphemes, which have appeared in the language
- Ex.: -nik – peacenik
- -teria – bookateria, washateria
3. A word, which consist of already existing morphemes but in new combination.
1. Phonological neologisms - new words formed from phonemes
- Ex.; zizz – short nap (onomatopoeic word)
2. Semantic neologisms - they are motivated
3. Syntactic neologisms - can be:
- phraseological (word combinations)
- morphological (formed by means of affixation, conversion, clipping, lexicalization, compounding)
Formation of neologisms:
3. word overlapping
5. forming new words from combinations & sentences
6. forming new words according to already existing productive patterns
fingersmith – карманник
tunesmith – настройщик пианино
ism – as an independent word
8. word plays
9. quaze lexims (phonemes)
Прислала Алена Жильцова