MINOR MEANS OF WORD-FORMATION – NON-PRODUCTIVE MEANS OF WORD FORMATION IN PRESENT-DAY ENGLISH: SOUND INTERCHANGE, REDUPLICATION, BACK-FORMATION, BLENDING, DISTINCTIVE STRESS (Q.V.), ETC.
Consists in the reduction of a word to one of its parts.
- Mathematics – maths
- Laboratory – lab
- Captain – cap
- Gymnastics – gym
1) The first part is left (the commonest type)
advertisement – ad
2) The second part is left
telephone – phone
airplane – plane
3) A middle part is left
influenza – flu
refrigerator – fridge
Accepted by the speakers of the language clipping can acquire grammatical categories (used in plural forms)
Is blending part of two words to form one word (merging into one word)
Smoke + fog = smog
Breakfast + lunch = brunch
Smoke + haze = smaze (дымка)
- addictive type: they are transformable into a phrase consisting of two words combined by a conjunction “and”
- blending of restrictive type: transformable into an attributive phrase, where the first element serves as modifier of a second.
Positron – positive electron
Medicare – medical care
A word or word combination that appears or especially coined by some author. But it doesn’t name a new object or doesn’t express a new concept
“I am English & my Englishness is in my vision” (Lawrence)
Word manufacturing by children:
Влюбчивый – вьбчивый
Барельеф – баба рельеф
Sound interchange is the way of word building when some sounds are changed to form a new word. It is non-productive in Modern English; it was productive in Old English and can be met in other Indo-European languages.
The causes of sound interchange can be different. It can be the result of Ancient Ablaut which cannot be explained by the phonetic laws during the period of the language development known to scientists., e.g. to strike - stroke, to sing - song etc. It can be also the result of Ancient Umlaut or vowel mutation which is the result of palatalizing the root vowel because of the front vowel in the syllable coming after the root (regressive assimilation), e.g. hot - to heat (hotian), blood - to bleed (blodian) etc.
In many cases we have vowel and consonant interchange. In nouns we have voiceless consonants and in verbs we have corresponding voiced consonants because in Old English these consonants in nouns were at the end of the word and in verbs in the intervocal position, e.g. bath - to bathe, life - to live, breath - to breathe etc.
Stress interchange can be mostly met in verbs and nouns of Romanic origin: nouns have the stress on the first syllable and verbs on the last syllable, e.g. `accent - to ac`cent. This phenomenon is explained in the following way: French verbs and nouns had different structure when they were borrowed into English; verbs had one syllable more than the corresponding nouns. When these borrowings were assimilated in English the stress in them was shifted to the previous syllable (the second from the end) . Later on the last unstressed syllable in verbs borrowed from French was dropped (the same as in native verbs) and after that the stress in verbs was on the last syllable while in nouns it was on the first syllable. As a result of it we have such pairs in English as: to af`fix -`affix, to con`flict- `conflict, to ex`port -`export, to ex`tract - `extract etc. As a result of stress interchange we have also vowel interchange in such words because vowels are pronounced differently in stressed and unstressed positions.
It is the way of word building when imitating different sounds forms a word. There are some semantic groups of words formed by means of sound imitation
a) Sounds produced by human beings, such as: to whisper, to giggle, to mumble, to sneeze, to whistle etc.
b) Sounds produced by animals, birds, insects, such as: to hiss, to buzz, to bark, to moo, to twitter etc.
c) Sounds produced by nature and objects, such as: to splash, to rustle, to clatter, to bubble, to ding-dong, to tinkle etc.
The corresponding nouns are formed by means of conversion, e.g. clang (of a bell), chatter (of children) etc.
Прислала Алена Жильцова