Metaphor – semantic transference (q.v.), figure of speech that implies comparison between two unlike entities, as distinguished from simile, an explicit comparison signalled by the words "like" or "as." The distinction is not simple. The metaphor makes a qualitative leap from a reasonable, perhaps prosaic comparison, to an identification or fusion of two objects, to make one new entity partaking of the characteristics of both. Many critics regard the making of ms. as a system of thought antedating or bypassing logic, a figure of speech in which two things are explicitly identified, although they are really only being compared. The remark, "This man is a pig" is understood, of course, to mean that the man resembles a pig. In analyzing ms. we use the terms tenor to denote the primary subject ("this man") and vehicle to designate the image introduced for comparison ("pig"). Some metaphors consist only of the vehicle while the tenor is left implicit, as if one were to say of the man, "That pig". Such ms. are variously described as implicit, submerged, truncated. – See Semantic changes; Figurative language.
Typology of metaphors.:
- - cognitive/conceptual metaphor (q.v.);
- - dead m.;
- - moribund m.;
- - new n.;
- - original m.;
- - poetic m.;
- - stock m.;
- - sustained m.
- 1) THE PROCESS AND PRINCIPLE OF COGNIZING NEW ENTITIES THROUGH ALREADY ACQUIRED EMPIRICAL EXPERIENCE;
- 2) SEMANTIC PROCESS OF TRANSFERENCE OF NAMES ON THE BASIS OF 1). – SEE COGNITIVE METAPHOR; METAPHOR
Metaphor accounts for a very considerable proportions of semantic changes.
Language is full of so-called fossilized (trite-банальный, избитый, неоригинальный) metaphors, which no longer call up the image of an object from which they were borrowed.
Ex.: the leaf of a book; hands of a clock; a clock face; hands of a cabbage.
Прислала Алена Жильцова