Componential analysis of meaning – linguistic analysis of the semantic structure of a word (a monosemantic word or a lexico-semantic variant of a polysemantic unit) as constituted by a set of minimal elements of sense – semes.
Is linguistic analysis of the semantic structure of a word? It can be a monosemantic word or lexico-semantic variant of polysemantic word.
The meaning of any word can be represented in a form of a structure, semantic components of the words’ meaning form a hierarchy.
Is an investigation of the structural organization & interrelations of the semantic components of the words’ meaning?
Lexical meaning is a complicated dynamic whole & its constituency is semes.
A seme is a minimal unit of sense, an atom of lexical semantics distinguished on the basis of oppositions by method of componential analysis.
A seme is not expressed in a word in any material unit but it’s revealed & singled out through interrelations of the word with other words on a paradigmatic & syntagmatic levels.
The sem. structure of a word can be represented graphically:
- human - seme
- Adult - seme
- Male - seme
- Parent - seme
human, adult, male, parent - they are semes!
- 1) Componential analysis is very popular in linguistics; it shows heterogeneity, complexity of lexical meaning.
- 2) Componential analysis helps to differentiate between words (especially between synonyms) the difference between small & little lies in the presence of an additional seme (pleasant, nice) in the word “little” → not absolute synonyms.
- 3) Componential analysis helps to explain semantic derivation (metaphor, metonymy, etc.)
- 4) Componential analysis to create the so called language of semantic primitives – minimal units of sense.
Seme (same as Sememe, Semantic component) – minimal unit of sense, an 'atom' of lexical semantics, distinguished on the basis of oppositions by methods applied in componential analysis.
Typology of semes.:
- - categorial s.;
- - denotative/connotative s.;
- - differential s.;
- - covert/overt s.;
- - occasional s.;
- - potential s.
TYPOLOGY OF SEMES.
Semes differ in many aspects:
- - the role they play & the place they occupy in their structure.
- - Interrelations between each other
- - Dependence of all the context
- - Participation in formation an actual meaning
- - The role they play in secondary nomination or in semantic
1) Cognitive & pragmatic semes
“dog” cognitive semes – living being
- carnivorous (плотоядный)
pragmatic semes – friend
2) Extralinguistically bound & linguistically bound
(appear as a result of pragmatic (mostly cognitive,
factors, show the attitude of part & parcel of
language users towards word lexical meaning)
fascist – negative connotations, extralinguistic bound
among extralinguistically semes can be cultural bound.
The English notion of freedom is negatively oriented
Freedom – non-imposition, the possibility of choice
(if you are free you can be sure that you will be left alone,
won’t be imposed anybody’s wills)
Russian conception of freedom – the idea of absence of outer restrictions.
3) Central & peripheral
Central – belonging to the core of the word meaning (belong to the intention)
Father – male, parent, human
- adult (peripheral)
4) Categorial & non-categorial
bathe – swim for pleasure or for the medical reasons
swim – through water
float – to stay on a surface without sinking
sail – in a ship or boat
1 hyperseme – to move in the water
but hyposemes are different
they show – type of movement, use of transport means, type of agent
5) Actual & potential
potential can be generated in some particular content
Прислала Алена Жильцова