Ranez.Ru |  
НГПУ
Факультет Иностранных Языков

Разделы Ranez.Ru

Алфавитный указатель

История поступлений

Самые читаемые

Топики на английском

Топики на немецком

Библиотека

Цитата дня

Обсудить статью

Фотоальбом

>> Добавить статью


Каталог ссылок

Справка (FAQ)

 

The adjective. Degrees of comparison...

Ranez.Ru > Помощь в учебе абитуриентам и студентам > Студенту > Английский язык > Теоретическая грамматика >

Версия страницы для печати

Adjective is a part of speech characterized by the following typical features:

  1. The lexico-grammatical meaning of “attributes (of substantives)”. By attributes we mean different properties of substantives, such as their size, colour, position in space, material, psychic state of persons, etc.
  2. The morphological category of the degrees of comparison.
  3. The characteristic combinability with nouns (a beautiful girl), link verbs (…is clever), adverbs, mostly those of degree (a very clever boy), the so-called “prop word” one (the grey one).
  4. The stem-building affixes –ful, -less, -ish, -ous, -ive, -ic, un-, pre-, in-, etc.
  5. Its functions of an attribute and a predicative complement.

Blokh: The adjective expresses the categorial semantics of property of a substance а each adjective used in text presupposes relation to some noun. Unlike nouns, adjectives do not possess a full nominative value.

Classification of adjectives. Хаймович и Роговская

With regard to the category of the degrees of comparison adjectives fall under 2 lexico-grammatical subclasses: comparables and non-comparables. The nucleus of the latter is composed of derived adjectives like wooden, Crimean, mathematical, etc. а Theses adjectives are called relative as distinct from all other adjectives called qualitative.

Most qualitative adjectives build up opposemes of comparison, but some do not:

  • adjectives that in themselves express the highest degree of a quality: supreme, extreme
  • those having the suffix –ish which indicates the degree of quality: reddish, whitish
  • those denoting qualities which are not compatible with the idea of comparison.: deaf, dead, lame, perpendicular.

Blokh: All the adjectives are traditionally divided into 2 large subclasses: qualitative and relative.

Relative adjectives express such properties of a substance as are determined by the direct relation of the substance to some other substance (e.g. wood – a wooden hut, history – a historical event).

The nature of this relationship in adjectives is best revealed by definitional correlations: e.g. a wooden hut – a hut made of wood; a historical event – an event referring to a certain period of history.

Qualitative adjectives, as different from relative ones, denote various qualities of substances which admit of a quantitative estimation, i.e. of establishing their correlative quantitative measure. The measure of a quality can be estimated as high or low, adequate or inadequate, sufficient or insufficient, optimal or excessive (e.g. a difficult task – a very difficult task).

!!! Substances can possess such qualities as are incompatible with the idea of degrees of comparison а adjectives denoting these qualities, while belonging to the qualitative subclasses, are in the ordinary use incapable of forming degrees of comparison (e.g. extinct, immobile, deaf, final, fixed).

Many adjectives considered under the heading of relative still can form degrees of comparison, thereby, as it were, transforming the denoted relative property of a substance into such as can be graded quantitatively (e.g. a military design – of a less military design – of a more military design).
-> The adjective functions may be grammatically divided into ‘evaluative’ and ‘specificative’. One and the same adjective, irrespective of its being relative or qualitative, can be used either in one or the other function.

  • e.g. good is basically qualitative, but used as a grading term in teaching it acquires the specificative value (bad, satisfactory, good, excellent).

 

The category of degrees of comparis: Хаймович/Роговская:

The category of the degrees of comparison of adjectives is the system of opposemes (long – longer – longest) showing qualitative distinctions of qualities. More exactly it shows whether the adjective denotes the property of some substance absolutely, or relatively as a higher or the highest amount of the property in comparison with that of some other substances.
-> ‘positive’, ‘comparative’ and ‘superlative’ degrees.

The positive degree is not marked. We may speak of a zero morpheme. The comparative and superlative degrees are built up either synthetically (by affixation or suppletivity) or analytically (with the help of word-morphemes more and most), which depends mainly on the structure of the stem.

Some authors treat more beautiful and the most beautiful not as analytical forms, but as free syntactical combinations of adverbs and adjectives. One of the arguments is that less and least form combinations with adjectives similar to those with more and most: e.g. more beautiful – less beautiful, the most beautiful – the least beautiful. 
In order to prove that more beautiful is an analytical form of the comparative degree, we have to prove that more is a grammatical word-morpheme identical with the morpheme –er.

  1. More an –er are identical as o their meaning of ‘a higher degree’.
  2. Their distribution is complementary. Together they cover all the adjectives having the degrees of comparison. Those adjectives which have comparative opposites with suffix –er have usually no parallel opposites with more and vice versa.
    e.g. beautiful – more beautiful (not beautifuller),nice – nicer (not more nice)

This is not the case with less:

  1. Less and –er have different, even opposite meanings.
  2. The distribution of –er and less is not complementary. One and the same lexical morpheme regularly attaches both less and –er: prettier – less pretty, safer – less safe.

Besides, unlike more, less is regularly replaced by not so: less pretty = not so pretty.
These facts show that more in more beautiful is a grammatical word-morpheme identical with the morpheme –er of the comparative degree grammeme а more beautiful is an analytical form.

A new objection is raised in the case of the superlative degree. In the expression a most interesting theory the indefinite article is used whereas a prettiest child is impossible а there is some difference between the synthetic superlative and the analytical one.

One must not forget that more and most are not only word-morphemes of comparison. They can be notional words. They are polysemantic and polyfunctional words. One of the meanings of most is ‘very, exceedingly’ (a most interesting book).
The notional word more in the meaning ‘to greater extent’ can also be used to modify adjectives, as in It’s more grey than brown. More grey here is a combination of words.
The positive degree does not convey the idea of comparison. Its meaning is absolute. Jespersen: the positive degree is, a matter of fact, negative in relation to comparison.
The comparative degree and the superlative degree are both relative in meaning (Peter is older than Mary – Peter is not old).

Smirnitsky: thinks that there is good ground to speak of 2 forms of comparison: the positive degree and the relative degree which exists in 2 varieties – the comparative degree and the superlative degree.

Statives.

Blokh:Among the words signifying properties of a nounal referent there is a leximic set which claims to be recognied as a separate part of speech, a class of words different form the adjectives in its class-forming features. These are words built up by the prefix a- and denoting different states, mostly of temporary duration. Here belong lexemes like afraid, agog, adrift, ablaze. These are treated as predicative adjectives in traditional grammar.

Scherbs and Vinogradov were the first to identify notional words signifying states and specially used as predicatives. They called the  newly identified part of speech the “category of state“ (Russian words: тепло, зябко, одиноко, радостно, жаль, лень).
The term “words of the category of state” being rather cumbersome form the technical point of view was later changed into “stative words” or “statives”.

The part-of-speech interpretation of the statives is not shared by all linguists.

Хаймович/Роговская: statives are ‘adlinks’ (on analogy with adverbs), they are opposed to adjectives

Substantivization of adjectives. Adjectivization of nouns.

Blokh: Among the substantivized adjectives there is a set characterized by hybrid lexico-grammatical features. On analogy of verbids these words might be called “adjectivids”.

The adjectivids fall into 2 main grammatical subgroups:

  1. pluralia tantum (the English, the rich, the unemployed) -> sets of people
  2. singularia tantum (the invisible, the abstract)а abstract ideas


Внимание!!!

Внимание!!! Вся ответственность за использование данного материала полностью возлагается на человека, его использующего. Администрация сайта не несет ответственности за возможные неточности; фактические и орфографические ошибки в тексте; за проблемы, которые могут возникнуть на экзаменах, зачетах или при других формах проверки знаний. Скрыть предупреждение!



← Предыдущий текст
Actual division of the sentence

 

Следующий текст →
Страны изучаемого языка.


Информация по тексту (показать все / скрыть)

Нашли ошибку?!

Если Вы вдруг обнаружили в тексте ошибку, сообщите, пожалуйста, нам.

Авторское право

© 2003—2017 Любое использование материалов, перепечатка их, размещение на каких-либо других источниках хранения и переноса данных (информации) только с разрешения авторов публикаций и администрации сайта. При цитировании материалов ссылка на сайт обязательна!


Проголосовать:    1   2   3   4   5 

Имя

Комментарии

К текущему тексту комментарии отсутствуют.

* Комментарии к материалам являются частными мнениями лиц, их написавших.


Читать все комментарии


Написать комментарий

Имя:

E-mail:

Комментарии:

 

** Отправляя комментарий, Вы соглашаетесь с тем, что Вы даёте право сайту воспроизводить Ваше имя, Ваши слова и указанные Вами аттрибуты. Администрация сайта имеет право отказать в размещении комментария без объяснения причин. Реклама и мат запрещены!


Верх страницы

Оставить отзыв
Сокровища Монтесумы 3. Скачать долгожданное продолжение любимой логической игры!

Новые материалы

2013, Май 23
2013, Февраль 24
2012, Ноябрь 04
2012, Октябрь 11
2011, Декабрь 27
2011, Декабрь 02
2011, Ноябрь 01
2011, Октябрь 23
2011, Август 09
Все поступления

Популярное в этом месяце

Популярные статьи

Ответы на Форуме

Последние обсуждения

Понравился сайт?!

Размести ссылку на эту страницу у себя в блоге:)

 
Данный интернет-сайт носит исключительно информационный характер, и ни при каких условиях информационные материалы и цены, размещенные на сайте, не являются публичной офертой, определяемой положениями Статьи 437 ГК РФ.