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# Книги. Художественная литература. Учебники и пособия.

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## Digital geometry: Discrete space, Euclidean space, Image analysis, Computer graphics, Bresenham's line algorithm, Pick'stheorem, Mathematical morphology

Digital geometry deals with discrete sets (usually discrete point sets) considered to be digitized models or images of objects of the 2D or 3D Euclidean space. Simply put, digitizing is replacing an object by a discrete set of its points. The images we see on the TV screen, the raster display of a computer, or in newspapers are in fact digital images. Its main application areas are computer graphics and image analysis.

## Schwarzschild Metric: Schwarzschild Metric, Schwarzschild Coordinates, Pseudo-Riemannian Manifold, Spherically Symmetric Spacetime, Atlas Topology, Spherical Coordinate System, Static Spacetime

High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! In Einstein's theory of general relativity, the Schwarzschild solution (or the Schwarzschild vacuum) describes the gravitational field outside a spherical, non-rotating mass such as a (non-rotating) star, planet, or black hole. It is also a good approximation to the gravitational field of a slowly rotating body like the Earth or Sun. The cosmological constant is assumed to equal zero. In the theory of Lorentzian manifolds, spherically symmetric spacetimes admit a family of nested round spheres. In such a spacetime, a particularly important kind of coordinate chart is the Schwarzschild chart, a kind of polar spherical coordinate chart on a static and spherically symmetric spacetime, which is adapted to these nested round spheres. The defining characteristic of Schwarzschild chart is that the radial coordinate possesses a natural geometric interpretation in terms of the surface area and Gaussian curvature of each sphere. However, radial...

## 5439.00 руб.*

Robert A. Nehmer, Jose Garcia Perez, Salvador Cruz Rambaud

## Algebraic Models For Accounting Systems

This book describes the construction of algebraic models which represent the operations of the double-entry accounting system. It presents a novel and comprehensive treatment of the subject and utilizes the methods and tools of abstract algebra, including automata, graph theory and monoids.

## 12042.00 руб.*

William L. Briggs, Lyle Cochran

## Single Variable Calculus: Early Transcendentals

Drawing on their decades of teaching experience, William Briggs and Lyle Cochran have created a calculus text that carries the teacher’s voice beyond the classroom. That voice–evident in the narrative, the figures, and the questions interspersed in the narrative–is a master teacher leading readers to deeper levels of understanding. The authors appeal to readers’ geometric intuition to introduce fundamental concepts and lay the foundation for the more rigorous development that follows. Comprehensive exercise sets have received praise for their creativity, quality, and scope. Functions; Limits; Derivatives; Applications of the Derivative; Integration; Applications of Integration; Integration Techniques; Sequences and Infinite Series; Power Series; Parametric and Polar Curves. For all readers interested in single variable and multivariable calculus for mathematics, engineering, and science.

## Decagon: Geometry, Polygon, Constructible polygon, Pentagon, Petrie polygon, Projection (linear algebra)

In geometry, a decagon is any polygon with ten sides and ten angles, and usually refers to a regular decagon, having all sides of equal length and all internal angles equal to 4?/5 (144°). Its Schlafli symbol is {10}.

## Second Fundamental Form: Second Fundamental Form, Differential Geometry, Quadratic Form, Tangent Space, Differential Geometry of Surfaces, Euclidean Space, First Fundamental Form

High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! In differential geometry, the second fundamental form is a quadratic form on the tangent plane of a smooth surface in the three dimensional Euclidean space, usually denoted by II. Together with the first fundamental form, it serves to define extrinsic invariants of the surface, its principal curvatures. More generally, such a quadratic form is defined for a smooth hypersurface in a Riemannian manifold and a smooth choice of the unit normal vector at each point.

## Square root: Mathematics, Real Number, Nth Root, Exponentiation, Complex Number, Matrix, Endomorphism Ring, Cube Root, Integer Square Root, Methods of Computing Square Roots

High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! In mathematics, a square root of a number x is a number r such that r2 = x, or, in other words, a number r whose square (the result of multiplying the number by itself) is x.Every non-negative real number x has a unique non-negative square root, called the principal square root, which is denoted with a radical sign as scriptstyle sqrt{x}. The square root can also be written in exponent notation, as x1/2. For example, the principal square root of 9 is 3, denoted scriptstyle sqrt{9} = 3, because 32 = 3 ? 3 = 9 and 3 is non-negative. The principal square root of a positive number, however, is only one of its two square roots.

## Tangent Bundle: Mathematics, Differentiable Manifold, Disjoint Union, Tangent Space, Projection (mathematics), Vector Bundle, Fiber Bundle, Dual Bundle, Disjoint Union (topology), Frame Bundle

High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! The tangent bundle to a manifold is the prototypical example of a vector bundle (a fiber bundle whose fibers are vector spaces). A section of TM is a vector field on M, and the dual bundle to TM is the cotangent bundle, which is the disjoint union of the cotangent spaces of M. By definition, a manifold M is parallelizable if and only if the tangent bundle is trivial. By definition, a manifold M is framed if and only if the tangent bundle TM is stably trivial, meaning that for some trivial bundle E the Whitney sum TM oplus E is trivial.

## Solid of revolution: Mathematics, Shape, Plane Curve, Line, Pappus's Centroid Theorem, Volume Element, Cylinder, Surface of Revolution, Gabriel's Horn, Dimension, Disk Integration, Shell Integration

High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! In mathematics, engineering, and manufacturing, a solid of revolution is a solid figure obtained by rotating a plane curve around some straight line (the axis) that lies on the same plane. Assuming that the curve does not cross the axis, the solid's volume is equal to the length of the circle described by the figure's centroid, times the figure's area (Pappus's second centroid Theorem). Rotating a curve A representative disk is a three-dimensional volume element of a solid of revolution. The element is created by rotating a line segment (of length w) around some axis (located r units away), so that a cylindrical volume of ??r2w units is enclosed.

## Specialization (pre)order: Mathematics, Topological Space, T1 Space, Separation Axiom, Partially Ordered Set, Denotational Semantics, Order Theory, Domain Theory, Algebraic Geometry, Generic Point

High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! In the branch of mathematics known as topology, the specialization (or canonical) preorder is a natural preorder on the set of the points of a topological space. For most spaces that are considered in practice, namely for all those that satisfy the T0 separation axiom, this preorder is even a partial order (called the specialization order). On the other hand, for T1 spaces the order becomes trivial and is of little interest. The specialization order is often considered in applications in computer science, where T0 spaces occur in denotational semantics. The specialization order is also important for identifying suitable topologies on partially ordered sets, as it is done in order theory.

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